Endocrine Drugs MCQs

General Endocrine / Endocrine Drugs
Thalamus/Hypothalamus Drugs
Pituitary Gland / Pituitary Drugs
Thyroid Gland / Thyroid Drugs
Pancreas/Diabetes Drugs
ACTH/Corticosteroids Drugs
Parathyroid / Parathyroid Drugs
Adrenal cortex / Adrenal Cortex Drugs
Estrogen and Progesterone Drugs

PART I Hypothalamic & Pituitary Hormones, Thyroid & Antithyroid Drugs 

001. Hormones are:
a) Products of endocrine gland secretion 
b) Mediators of inflammatory process
c) By-products of tissue metabolism
d) Product of exocrine gland secretion

002. Select an endocrine drug which is an amino acid derivative:
a) Insulin
b) Hydrocortisone
c) Calcitonin
d) Thyroxine 

003. Select an endocrine drug which is a peptide derivative:
a) Oxytocin 
b) Prednisolone
c) Nandrolone
d) Progesterone 

004. Select an endocrine drug which is a steroidal derivative:
a) Gonadorelin
b) Insulin
c) Levothyroxine
d) Hydrocortisone 

005. Hormone analogues are:
a) Naturally occurring substances but slightly different from hormones
b) Naturally occurring substances but less efficacious than hormones
c) Naturally occurring substances having the same structure but different pharmacological properties than hormones
d) Synthetic compounds, which resemble the naturally occurring hormones 

006. Regarding the mechanism of action of hormones, indicate the FALSE statement:
a) Hormones interact with the specific receptors in the wall of the cells 
b) Cyclic AMP acts as a second messenger system
c) They stimulate adenylcyclase enzyme
d) Many hormones owe their effect to primary actions on subcellular membrane.

007. Hypothalamic and pituitary hormones (and their synthetic analogs) have pharmacologic applications in three areas,
EXCEPT the following:
a) As replacement therapy for hormone deficiency states
b) As drug therapy for a variety of disorders using pharmacologic doses to elicit a hormonal effect that is not present at
physiologic a blood levels
c) As a diagnostic tool for performing stimulation tests to diagnose hypo- or hyperfunctional endocrine states
d) As food supplements 

008. Which of the following hormones is produced by the hypothalamic gland?
a) Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) 
b) Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
c) Aldosterone
d) Estradiol

009. Which of the following hormones is produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary?
a) Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)
b) Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
c) Growth hormone (somatotropin, GH) 
d) Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)

010. The posterior pitutary does NOT secret:
a) Vasopressin
b) Oxytocin
c) Growth hormone 
d) All of the above

011. Which of the following organs is a target for prolactin?
a) Liver
b) Adrenal cortex
c) Thyroid
d) Mammary gland 

012. Which of the following organ hormones is a target for growth hormone (somatotropine, GH)?
a) Glucocorticoids
b) Insulin-like growth factors (IGF, somatomedins) 
c) Triiodthyronine
d) Testosterone

013. All of the following statements about growth hormone are true, EXCEPT:
a) It may stimulate the synthesis or release of somatomedins
b) Low levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 are associated with dwarfism
c) Hypersecretion can result in acromegaly huh?
d) It is contraindicated in subjects with closed epiphyses

014. Correct statements about adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
include all of the following, EXCEPT:
a) Endogenous ACTH is also called corticotropin
b) ACTH stimulates the synthesis of corticosteroids
c) ACTH is most useful clinically as a diagnostic tool in adrenal insufficiency
d) The oral route is the preferred rout of administration 

015. The hypothalamic control exists for the thyroid gland. This consideration is:
a) True 
b) False.

016. Indications of bromocriptine are following, EXCEPT:
a) Prolactin-secreting adenomas
b) Amenorrhea-Galactorrhea
c) Prolactin deficiency 
d) Acromegaly

017. Currently used dopamine agonists decreasing pituitary prolactin secretion are following:
a) Bromocriptine
b) Cabergoline
c) Pergolide
d) All of the above 

018. Indications of oxitocin are following:
a) Labor and augment dysfunctional labor for conditions requiring early vaginal delivery
b) Incompleted abortion
c) For control of pospartum uterine hemorrhage
d) All of the above 

019. Indications for vasopressin are which of the following:
a) Diabetes mellitus
b) Hypertension
c) Pituitary diabetes insipidus 
d) Incompleted abortion

020. Vasopressin possesses the following:
a) Antidiuretic property 
b) Vasodilatation property
c) Release of a thyroid hormone into the plasma
d) Diuretic property

021. Oxytocin produces the following effects:
a) It causes contraction of the uterus
b) It assists the progress of spermatozoa into the uterine cavity
c) It brings about milk ejection from the lactating mammary gland
d) All of the above 

022. Vasopressin causes a pressor effect by:
a) Releasing noradrenaline from the nerve terminals
b) Releasing and activating renin-angiotensin system
c) A direct action on smooth muscles of the blood vessels 
d) All of the above mechanisms

023. Which of the following statements is true
a) Hypothyroidism is a syndrome resulting from deficiency of thyroid hormones and is manifested 
largely by a reversible slowing down of all body functions 
b) Hypothyroidism is the clinical syndrome that results when tissues are exposed to high levels
of thyroid hormone

024. Which of the following hormones is produced by the thyroid gland?
a) Thyroxine 
b) Thyroid-stimulating hormone
c) Thyrotropin-releasing hormone
d) Thyroglobulin

Thyroxine is the main hormone produced by the thyroid gland, acting to increase metabolic 
rate and so regulating growth and development.The functions of thyroxine in the body are incredibly wide ranging. Thyroxine, also known as T4, plays at least some role in controlling basal metabolic rate (BMR), energy production, the cardiovascular system, bone heath, the central nervous system, the reproductive system, growth and development, and the digestive system. It is an essential hormone in the body, needing replacing or controlling when the thyroid fails to maintain a proper concentration in the body.
Production of T3 and its prohormone thyroxine (T4) is activated by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which is released from the pituitary gland. 

025. Which of the following hormones is produced by the thyroid gland?
a) Thyroid-stimulating hormone
b) Thyrotropin-releasing hormone
c) Triiodothyronine 
d) Thyroglobulin.

026. Thyroid stimulating hormone regulates the following:
a) Iodine uptake
b) Biosynthesis of iodothyroglobulin
c) Release of thyroid hormone into the plasma
d) All of the above.

027. Thyroid hormones produce various pharmacological effects. Indicate the wrong statement(s).
a) Decline of the basal metabolic rate in the body 
b) Increase in the rate and force of contraction of the heart
c) Increase in the blood cholestrol level
d) Increase in the heat production

028. Synthesis and release of thyroid hormones are controlled by:
a) Anterior pituitary alone
b) Hypothalamus alone
c) Blood levels of thyroid hormones alone
d) All of the above 

029. Thyrotropin (TSH) stimulates the following processes:
a) Concentration of iodine by thyroid follicles
b) Iodination of thyroglobulin
c) Release of thyroxine and triidothyronine 
d) De-iodination of thyroid hormones.

Thyrotropin – A hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland that stimulates and 
regulates the activity of the thyroid gland. Also called thyroid-stimulating hormonethyrotropic hormone.

030. The rate of secretion of thyrotropin is controlled by:
a) The amount of iodine in the thyroid gland
b) The amount of thyroid hormones in the thyroid gland
c) The concentration of thyroid hormones in blood 
d) The concentration of catecholamines in blood
031. Indications of thyroid hormones are the following, EXCEPT:
a) Cretinism
b) Myxoedema
c) Hashimoto’s disease
d) For treatment of simple obesity 
032. The common side effect of thyroid hormones is the following:
a) Increases in basal metabolic rate
b) Angina pectoris
c) Tremors
d) Exopthalmos 
 
Exophalmos is bulging of the eyes
033. Currently used antithyroid drugs include the following, EXCEPT:
a) Propylthiouracil (PTU)
b) Diatrizoate sodium (Hypaque)
c) Methimazole (Tapazole)
d) Potassium perchlorate
034. In the area where goiters are endemic, which of the following drugs is used?
a) Iodide 1 part in 100000 
b) Propylthiouracil 200 mg daily
c) Methimazole 40 mg daily
d) Any of the above can be used.
035. Iodide preparations can be used in following situations, EXCEPT:
a) In thyroid disorders
b) In granulomatous lesions e.g. Syphilis
c) As an antiseptic
d) In iodism
 
PART II Pancreatic Hormones & Antidiabetic Drugs
001. Secretory products of pancreatic β-cells are:
a) Glucagon, proglucagon
b) Insulin, C-peptide, proinsulin, islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) 
c) Somatostatin
d) Pancreatic polypeptide (PP)
002. Insulin is:
a) A glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 6000
b) A small protein with a molecular weight of 5808 having disulphide linkage 
c) A fructoolygosaccharide
d) A catecholamine
003. Insulin is a polypeptide hence:
a) It is resistant to destruction by gastric juice
b) It is destroyed by gastric juice 
c) It is not a polypeptide
d) It is metabolized immediately by cellular enzymes
004. Bovine insulin is less antigenic than porcine. This consideration is:
a) True
b) False 
005. Insulin causes reduction in blood sugar level by the following mechanisms, EXCEPT:
a) Increased glucose uptake in the peripheral tissue
b) Reduction of breakdown of glycogen
c) Diminished gluconeogenesis
d) Decreased glucose absorption from the gut
006. Which of the following is true for glucagon?
a) Stimulates gluconeogenesis in the liver 
b) Stimulates the secretion of insulin by beta cells
c) Inhibits glucose utilization by skeletal muscle
d) Inhibits uptake of aminoacids by cells.
007. Insulin cannot be administered by:
a) Oral route
b) Intravenous route
c) Subcutaneous route
d) Intramuscular route.
008. Sources of human insulin production are:
a) Recombinant DNA techniques by inserting the proinsulin gene into E. coli or yeast 
b) Postmortem insulin extraction from human autopsy pancreas
c) All of the above
d) None of the above
009. The primary reason for a physician to prescribe human insulin is that:
a) It has a faster onset of action than other insulins
b) It has a shorter duration of action than other insulins
c) It can be given to patients who have an allergy to animal insulins 
d) It is more effective in preventing the complications of diabetes than animal insulins
010. Correct statements about crystalline zinc (regular) insulin include all of the following, EXCEPT:
a) It can serve as replacement therapy for juvenile-onset diabetes
b) It can be administered intravenously
c) It is a short-acting insulin
d) It can be administered orally
 
011. Diabetic coma (e.g., ketoacidosis) is treated by the administration of:
a) Lente insulin
b) Glucose
c) Crystalline insulin 
d) Oral anti-diabetic drugs.
Three different types of diabetic coma are identified:
  1. Severe diabetic hypoglycemia
  2. Diabetic ketoacidosis advanced enough to result in unconsciousness from a combination of severe hyperglycemiadehydration and shock, and exhaustion
  3. Hyperosmolar nonketotic coma in which extreme hyperglycemia anddehydration alone are sufficient to cause unconsciousness.
012. Sulphonylureas act by:
a) Reducing the absorption of carbohydrate from the gut
b) Increasing the uptake of glucose in peripheral tissues
c) Reducing the hepatic gluconeogenesis
d) Stimulating the beta islet cells of pancreas to produce insulin 
 
013. Sulphonylureas are effective in totally insulin deficient patients. This consideration is:
a) True
b) False 
014. Currently used second-generation sulfonylureas include the following, EXCEPT:
a) Glyburide (Glibenclamide)
b) Glipizide (Glydiazinamide)
c) Glimepiride (Amaril)
d) Tolbutamide (Orinase) 
015. Currently used oral hypoglycemic thiazolidinediones include the following, EXCEPT
a) Pioglitazone (Actos)
b) Rosiglitazone (Avandia)
c) Troglitazone (Rezulin) 
d) All of the above
016. Thiazolidinediones act by:
a) Diminishing insulin resistance by increasing glucose uptake 
and metabolism in muscle and adipose tissues
b) Reducing the absorption of carbohydrate from the gut
c) Stimulating the beta islet cells of pancreas to produce insulin
d) All of the above
017. Currently used alpha-glucosidase inhibitors include the following, EXCEPT:
a) Pioglitazone (Actos) 
b) Acarbose (Precose)
c) Miglitol (Glyset)
d) All of the above


018. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors act by:
a) Diminishing insulin resistance by increasing glucose uptake and metabolism in muscle and
adipose tissues
b) Competitive inhibiting of intestinal alpha-ghucosidases and modulating the postprandial 
digestion and absorption of starch and disaccharides 
c) Reducing the absorption of carbohydrate from the gut
d) Stimulating the beta islet cells of pancreas to produce insulin

019. Potency of action of
a) Miglitol is six times higher than that of acarbose 
b) Acarbose is more than that of miglitol
c) Miglitol and acarbose is equal
d) Oral hypoglycemic agents depend on the severity of hyperglycemia

020. Which of the following oral hypoglycaemic drugs stimulates both synthesis and release
of insulin from beta islet cells:
a) Glibenclamide 
b) Phenformin
c) Buformine
d) Metformin

021. Currently used oral hypoglycemic biguanides include the following, EXCEPT:
a) Repaglinide (Prandin)
b) Metformin
c) Phenformine

d) Glipizide

 

022. The action of insulin is potentiated by:
a) Sulphonylureas
b) Glucagon
c) Biguanides 
d) None of the above

Biguanides can function as oral antihyperglycemic drugs used fordiabetes mellitus or prediabetes treatment. 
Biguanides do not affect the output of insulin, unlike other hypoglycemic agentssuch as sulfonylureas and meglitinides. Therefore, not only are they effective in Type 2 diabetics but they can also be effective in Type 1 patients in concert with insulin therapy.

023. Duration of action of:
a) Tolbutamide is more than that of chlorpropamide  93
b) Chlorpropamide is more than that of tolbutamide 
c) Tolbutamide and chlorpropamide is equal
d) Oral hypoglycemic agents depend on the severity of hyperglycemia

024. Side effects of sulphonylureas are less than those of biguanides. This considerations is:
a) True 
b) False

025. Biguanides are used in the following conditions, EXCEPT:
a) As a supplement to sulphonylurea, where it is insufficient to give good results
b) In over weight diabetics
c) To reduce insulin requirements

d) In case of hyperglycemic shock 

026. Which of the following agents is/are important hormonal antagonists of insulin in the body?
a) Glucagon
b) Adrenal steroids
c) Adrenaline
d) All of the above 

027. Glucagon is:
a) A glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 6000
b) A peptide – identical in all mammals – consisting of a single chain of 29 amino acids 
c) A a fructoolygosaccharide
d) A small protein with a molecular weight of 5808 having disulphide linkage

028. Which of the following statements is FALSE?
a) Glucagon is synthesized in the A cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans.
b) Glucagon is a peptide – identical in all mammals – consisting of a single chain of 29 amino acids
c) Glucagon is extensively degraded in the liver and kidney as well as in plasma, and at its tissue
receptor sites.
d) Half-life of glucagon is between 6 and 8 hours, which is similar to that of insulin 

029. Glucagon can be used in the following situations, EXCEPT:
a) Severe hypoglycemia
b) Severe hyperglycemia 
c) Endocrine diagnosis

d) Beta-blocker poisoning

030. Main complications of insulin therapy include the following:
a) Hypoglycemia
b) Insulin allergy
c) Lipodystrophy at an injection site
d) All of the above 

PART III The Gonadal Hormones & Inhibitors 

001. The major natural estrogens produced by women are following, EXCEPT:
a) Estradiol (Estradiol-17β, E2)
b) Estron (E1)
c) Ethinyl estradiol 
d) Estriol (E3)

002. Which of the following statements about estrogens are True:
a) Estrogens are required for normal sexual maturation and growth of the female
b) Estrogens decrease the rate of resorption of bone
c) Estrogens enhance the coagulability of blood
d) All of the above 

003. The major synthetic estrogens are following, EXCEPT:
a) Dienestrol
b) Diethylstilbestrol
c) Benzestrol
d) Estradiol 

Estradiol (E2 or 17β-estradiol, alsooestradiol) is a sex hormone. Estradiol is abbreviated E2 as it has two hydroxyl groups in its molecular structure. Estrone has one (E1) andestriol has three (E3). Estradiol is about 10 times as potent as estrone and about 80 times as potent as estriol in its estrogenic effect

004. Which of the following statements about estrogens are True:
a) Estradiol binds strongly to an α2-globulin and albumin with lower affinity
b) Estradiol is converted by liver and other tissues to estron and estriol and their 2-hydroxylated derivatives and
conjugated metabolites and excreted in the bile
c) Estrone and estriol have lower affinity for the estrogen receptors than estradiol
d) All of the above

005. Indications of synthetic estrogens are following, EXCEPT:
a) Primary hypogonadism
b) Postmenopausal hormonal therapy
c) Hormonal contraception

d) For treatment of simple obesity 

009. Progesterone is secreted by:
a) Ovarian follicles
b) Corpus luteum 
c) Granulosa and theca cells
d) All of the above

010. The major natural progestin is:
a) Estradiol
b) Estron
c) Progesterone 
d) Estriol
PART IV Glucocorticoid, Steroidal & Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
001. Glucocorticoids are hormonal steroids:
a) Having an important effect on intermediary metabolism, cardiovascular function, growth, 
and immunity 
b) Having principally salt-retaining activity
c) Having androgenic or estrogenic activity
d) All of the above
002. Inflammation is:
a) A localized protective reaction of a tissue to irritation, injury, or infection, 
characterized by pain, redness, swelling, and sometimes loss of function 
b) A deficiency of the normal immune response.
c) A reaction resulting from an immune reaction produced by an individual’s white blood cells
or antibodies acting on the body’s own tissues or extracellular proteins.
d) All of the above

003. An acute, transient phase, of inflammation is characterized by:
a) Local vasodilatation and increased capillary permeability (phase of damage) 
b) Infiltration of leucocytes and phagocytic cells (phase of exudation)
c) Tissue degeneration and fibrosis occurrence (phase of proliferation)
d) All of the above

007. Correct statements about cortisol (hydrocortisone) include all of the following, EXCEPT:
a) Cortisol is synthesized from cholesterol
b) ACTH governs cortisol secretion
c) Most cortisol is inactivated in the liver
d) The half-life of cortisol in the circulations is normally about 60-90 hours.

008. Correct statements about glucocorticoids include all of the following, EXCEPT:
a) Effects of glucocorticoids are mediated by widely distributed glucocorticoid receptors that
are members of the superfamily of nuclear receptors.
b) Glucocorticoids have dose-related metabolic effects on carbohydrate, protein, and fat
metabolism.
c) Glucocorticoids have pro-inflammatory effects. 
d) Glucocorticoids have catabolic effects in lymphoid and connective tissue, muscle, fat, and skin

020. Indication of glucocorticoids is:
a) Chronic (Addison’s disease) and acute adrenocortical insufficiency
b) Organ transplants (prevention and treatment of rejection – immunosuppression)
c) Inflammatory conditions of bones and joints (arthritis, bursitis, tenosynovitis).
d) All of the above 

021. Indications of glucocorticoids are following, EXCEPT:
a) Gastrointestinal diseases (inflammatory bowel disease)
b) Postmenopausal hormonal therapy 
c) Inflammatory conditions of bones and joints (arthritis, bursitis, tenosynovitis)
d) Skin diseases (atopic dermatitis, dermatoses, localized neurodermatitis)
022. Serious side effects of glucocorticoids include the following, EXCEPT:
a) Acute peptic ulcers
b) Iatrogenic Cushing’s syndrome (rounding, puffiness, fat deposition and plethora alter the appearance of the face –
moon faces)
c) Salicylism (vomiting, tinnitus, decreased hearing, and vertigo) 
d) Hypomania or acute psychosis
023. Serious side effects of glucocorticoids include the following:
a) Adrenal suppression
b) Insomnia, behavioral changes (primarily hypomania)
c) Rounding, puffiness, fat deposition and plethora alter the appearance of the face – moon faces
d) All of the above

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