Basic MCQs: Cardiology

Which layer of the following serves the dual purpose of forming the inner layer of the pericardium and forming the outermost wall of the heart?
A) fibrous pericardium
B) parietal pericardium
C) visceral pericardium
D) myocardium

The layer of the heart that forms a smooth, protective lining of the heart chambers and valves is the _______________.
A) endocardium
B) myocardium
C) epicardium
D) parietal pericardium

The bicuspid valve __________________.
A) is located on the left side of the heart
B) guards the auricles of the heart
C) guards the entrance to the aorta
D) guards the entrance to the pulmonary trunk
Freshly oxygenated blood enters the heart through the ______________, and is pumped out the _____________.
A) right atrium; aorta
B) left atrium; aorta
C) right ventricle; pulmonary arteries
D) left ventricle; pulmonary arteries
Someone suffering a heart attack in his anterior lower right ventricle probably had a blockage in which coronary artery?
A) anterior interventricular artery
B) circumflex artery
C) posterior interventricular artery
D) marginal artery

When do the A-V valves close during the cardiac cycle?
A) when pressure inside the ventricles is at its lowest
B) when pressure inside the atria is greater than that inside the ventricles
C) when ventricular pressure exceeds that of the atria
D) when pressure is greater in the aorta than in the left ventricle

How does the impulse to contract slow down slightly before it is transferred into the ventricles?
A) It makes a detour and travels to the brain and back.
B) There is a parasympathetic brake on the AV node.
C) Junctional fibers leading into the AV node have very small diameters.
D) The skeleton of the heart prevents the impulse from being transmitted rapidly.

What does the electrocardiogram (ECG) QRS wave indicate is happening in the heart?
A) The atria are depolarizing.
B) The ventricles are depolarizing while the atria repolarize.
C) The ventricles are repolarizing.
D) The heart is at rest.

Which artery supplies blood to the ilium and muscles of the lower back?
A) aorta
B) common iliac artery
C) internal iliac artery
D) iliolumbar artery

A deep wound to the upper thigh might damage the _____________ artery.
A) femoral
B) popliteal
C) anterior tibial
D) peroneal
Blood is drained from the face, scalp, and superficial regions of the neck by the _______________.
A) carotid arteries
B) external jugular veins
C) internal jugular veins
D) brachiocephalic veins

A unique venous system, called the ________________, carries blood directly from the intestines to the liver for processing rather than directly into the inferior vena cava.
A) hepatic portal system
B) superior mesenteric vein
C) saphenous vein
D) gonadal vein
The inability of the left ventricle to pump blood adequately to the body’s cells is indicative of ________________.
A) an embolus
B) cardiac tamponade
C) congestive heart failure
D) asystole
A condition in which there is a congenital predisposition for a ruptured aorta is _____________.
A) a metabolic disorder of fatty acid metabolism
B) Marfan syndrome
C) Niemann-Pick type C disease a lysosomal storage disease associated with mutations in NPC1 and NPC2 genes
D) coronary artery disease

Which membrane is closest to the heart muscle?
A) pericardial sac
B) fibrous pericardium
C) parietal pericardium
D) visceral pericardium
How many openings are there in the right atrium?
A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4

The _____ valve lies between the right atrium and right ventricle.
A) bicuspid
B) aortic semilunar
C) pulmonary semilunar
D) tricuspid

The pulmonary semilunar valve prevents a back-flow of blood into the _____.
A) pulmonary artery
B) right ventricle
C) left ventricle
D) right atrium

The aortic semilunar valve prevents blood from returning to the _____.
A) left ventricle
B) aorta
C) right ventricle
D) left atrium

Which structure contains the lowest amount of oxygen?
A) pulmonary vein
B) aorta
C) vena cava
D) left ventricle

Cardiac output can be determined by which of the following formulas?
A) HR – SV
B) HR divided by SV
C) HR + SV
D) HR x SV

The first heart sound is caused by closure of the _____ valves.
A) pulmonary semilunar
B) atrioventricular
C) aortic semilunar


The last in the cardiac conduction sequence is the _____.
A) SA node
B) AV node
C) AV bundle

D) Purkinje fibers

The electrical initiation of a heartbeat begins in the _____ chamber wall.
A) left ventricle
B) right ventricle
C) right atrium
D) left atrium
The central cardiac control region is in the _____ of the brain.
A) hypothalamus
B) medulla oblongata
C) cerebellum
D) pons
The T wave of an electrocardiogram represents which event?
A) ventricular depolarization
B) atrial repolarization
C) ventricular repolarization
D) atrial depolarization
A heartbeat of less than 60 beats per minute is called _____.
A) tachycardia
B) bradycardia
C) arrhythmia
D) fibrillation

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