High-yield Review: Respiratory system quiz #2

Please check back for updates, as this post will be growing as I add high-yield review points. I take my quiz in a few days…

COPD (medbullets) (symptoma)

High-yield points:

(source: firecracker.me)







Asbestosis (medbullets) (symptoma)

High-yield points:

  • asbestos fibers (associated with shipbuilding, roofing, plumbing, insulation, construction work)
  • Pathology: ivory white calcified pleural plaques, asbestos bodies (ferruginous bodies)
  • bronchogenic carcinoma
  • malignant mesothelioma

(images posted are from Firecracker.me)





  • serpentine form 90% BUT less damage
  • amphibole 10% BUT worst type (stiff, straight, distal lung parenchema, more inflammatory
  • it is a pneumoconiosis
  • asbestos fibers go deep into the periphery of the lung, subpleural and LOWER, visceral and parietal pleura
  • central region is spared
  • parietal pleural plaques
  • mesothelioma, lung, larynx, ovary
  • presents with dyspnea on exertion
  • wheezing, crackles (BI BASAL)
  • cor pulmonale (rt. side failure)

Berylliosis (medbullets) (symptoma)

Berylliosis+Think+aerospace,+automotive,+computer,+ceramics,+and+nuclear+industries.+Clinical+manifestations_High-yield points:


  • granulomatous mimicking sarcoidosis (granulomas in multiple systems)
  • found in aerospace, electronics, nuclear materials, and manufacturing industries
  • non-caseating granulomas
  • interstitial fibrosis primarily affects the UPPER lobes
  • associated with an increased risk of primary lung cancer
  • two most important things for Dx are Hx and exposure
  • found in the BASE of the lung, BiBasilar
  • BeLPT test used to tell the difference, related to hypersensitivity
  • Dx – must be: BeLPT (lymphocyte proliferation test), non-caseating granulomas, and work Hx
  • Hilar adenopathy, nodules, ground glass
  • Tx – stop exposure, supportive, glucocorticoids, immune suppression, vaccination, physiotherapy

Silicosis (medbullets) (symptoma)



High-yield points:

  • Silica (associated with sandblasting, also seen in foundries and mines, quartz, and other minerals)
  • Silica disrupts phagolysosome in macrophages, INCREASING SUSCEPTIBILITY TO TUBERCULOSIS
  • lung nodules
  • egg-shell calcification in hilar nodules, silicotic nodules
  • TB
  • increased risk of bronchogenic carcinoma
  • simple vs progressive
  • simple – 1-10mm plus massive conglomerate nodules 71cm
  • accelerated, acute silicosis – now the diff
  • silica fiber type: crystalline and amorphous (not toxic)
  • acute silicosis – high level of exposure in a short period of time
  • from simple nodules to complicated/massive fibrosis
  • acute silicosis – 3yrs, crystalline form
  • Sx…SOB, chest pain, dyspnea, w/l, edema, Cor pulmonale
  • ACUTE – high dose! – intense exposure
  • Dx: Hx and findings, eggshell calcifications
  • Path: macrophages engulf them…silicone nodules so small no need to biopsy..can’t see them
  • Bronchoalveolar Lavage
  • What attracts the macs? IL-1, IL-8
  • inflammation progresses to tissue damage
  • remember ACUTE IS WORSE!! than chronic
  • AMIODARONE side effect ling fibrosis

Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (medbullets) (symptoma)

High-yield points:

(images posted are from Firecracker.me)




  • precipitated by an unknown agent that causes cytokine release
  • repeated cycles of lung injury and wound healing with increased collagen deposition.
  • cyanosis
  • peripheral edema
  • obstructive sleep apnea
  • pirfenidone inhibits TGF-beta
  • CXR / CT diffuse, interstitial pattern bilaterally, seen more at the BASES and PERIPHERAL portions of the lung
  • Tx corticosteroids NG!!!!! LUNG transplant or above drugs
  • drugs that cause pulmonary fibrosis: Breathing Air Badly (from) Medications: Bleomycin, Amiodarone, Busulfan, Methotrexate


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