Respirartory system: High-yield review quiz #6

Summaries from

Lung cancer
Bronchopumonary dysplasia
Sleep apnea

Overview of lung cancer

Lung cancer is divided into two histologic classes: non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which accounts for 85% of lung cancer and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) which accounts for the remainder. There are three main types of NSCLC: adenocarcinoma (40%), squamous cell (30%), and large cell (15%). SCLC accounts for 15%. Adenocarcinoma is the most frequent type in women and non-smokers. As we will discuss, because most lung cancers are diagnosed late in the course of the disease, overall survival is a dismal 15%.

Squamous cell or epidemoid carcinoma tends to arise from central bronchi and is closely linked to cigarette smoking. The presence of keratin “pearls” reflects some degree of differentiation. Squamous cell carcinoma tends to metastasize late. Adenocarcinoma (now the most common type) forms acinar and glandular structures and occurs mostly in the periphery of the lung. More differentiated types are associated with formation of mucin. Large cell carcinoma is an anaplastic tumor devoid of evidence of glandular or squamous differentiation. The cells are bizarre in shape and the tumor generally arises in the periphery.

Lung Cancer


NSCLC: cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), and cisplatin (CAP)
SCLC: Carboplatin and Etoposide

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD; formerly chronic lung disease of infancy) is a chronic lung disorder of infants and children first described in 1967. It is more common in infants with low birth weight and those who received prolonged mechanical ventilation to treat respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). It results in significant morbidity and mortality. The definition of BPD has continued to evolve since then primarily due to changes in the population, such as more survivors at earlier gestational ages, and improved neonatal management including surfactantantenatalglucocorticoid therapy, and less aggressive mechanical ventilation.


Sleep apnea


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